What is Oral and Dental Health?
The unit of hospitals and similar health institutions responsible for performing the necessary medical intervention for diseases related to the mouth, teeth, gums and jaw area is called the oral and dental health unit. Health personnel working in this unit are listed as chief physician, dentist, dental technician, dental prosthesis technician, x-ray technician, nurse, and sterilization nurse.
Oral and dental health problems can be experienced in many different ways. They can occur depending on many factors such as genetic structure, age, paying attention or not paying attention to personal care and hygiene rules, and diet. This has led to the emergence of many sub-units of the oral and dental health department. These sections are; orthodontics, periodontology, pedodontics, oral and maxillofacial surgery, endodontics and aesthetic dentistry. While each of these units deals with a separate disease, sometimes cooperation can be established between sub-units in complex situations.
In the oral and dental health unit, the patient's complaint is listened in detail by the person who provides the relevant health service, and then the necessary tests are performed. In the meantime, it is important for the doctor to examine and listen to the patient's health history. The diagnosis is made in the light of the information given by the patient and the test results. The treatment method to be applied according to the diagnosis should be shared with the patient. Treatment methods differ according to the oral and dental health problem experienced.
What Diseases Does the Oral and Dental Health Unit Treat?
As mentioned above, oral and dental health problems can be various. Accordingly, the oral and dental health unit operates by dividing into groups. The diseases that the oral and dental health unit deals with are explained below by classifying them.
Especially in youth and childhood, dental and oral health is important. During this period, the person should have regular check-ups and pay attention to personal hygiene rules. Methods such as fissure sealant application, topical fluoride application to grinder teeth can be applied to people in this age group.
Distortion in the teeth, mismatches of the lower and upper jaws, and disorders of the teeth in the closure of the mouth are included in the field of orthodontics. Such disorders seen in the teeth can both disrupt the aesthetics of the external appearance of the person and create issues such as chewing problems. The orthodontic treatment, popularly known as braces treatment, is used in this and similar oral and dental health diseases.
Periodontology unit deals with gingival diseases. Gum diseases that start with gingivitis cause problems such as tooth loss, calculus, gingival recession, and periodontitis (damage to the tissues supporting the teeth and alveolar bone). The symptoms of gum diseases are listed as follows, and people with these symptoms should apply to the periodontology unit:
•Redness and swelling of the gums
•Rocking, elongation of teeth
•Inflammation between the tooth and gum
•Displacement of teeth
•Gingival recessions and sensitivity on the root surfaces exposed due to this recession
•Bad odor and taste in the mouth
•Black areas caused by tartar between the teeth or at the edges of the gums
Oral and dental health problems seen in childhood are treated in the pedodontics unit. This unit accepts patients aged 0-15 years. Oral and dental health problems experienced by the patients in this age group during the edentulous period, the period when the milk teeth begin to erupt, the mixed dentition period (the period when the milk teeth and permanent teeth are seen together), the period of completion of the permanent teeth are evaluated in the pedodontics unit.
In the pedodontics unit, existing problems such as dental caries and early tooth loss are treated, as well as preventive and protective health services are provided. These services include applications such as prostheses, placeholders, fissure sealants, fluoride gel and fluoride varnish.
Oral, Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery
Oral and maxillofacial surgery unit plays a role in the treatment of diseases such as cyst and lesion formation in the jawbones, tooth and jaw fractures, implant treatments, and size loss in the jawbones. Treatment methods such as bone powder (graft) applications, sinus lifting (sinus elevation), apical resection are applied in the treatment of these diseases. Local anesthesia is applied during the procedures.
Oral and maxillofacial surgery unit is also involved in the treatment of tumor or cyst formations in the soft and hard tissues inside the mouth such as the palate, tongue, cheek, lips, muscles, bones and teeth.
The endodontic unit is involved in the treatment of the loss of vitality of the teeth as a result of damage to the pulp tissue containing nerve and vascular packages in the teeth. If the treatment is neglected, health problems such as tooth loss and lesions in the roots of the teeth may occur.
Root canal treatment, dental trauma treatment, post placement in the root canal cavity (for coronal restoration) and similar endodontic applications are covered under the roof of this unit.
Issues such as crooked teeth, deterioration of the tooth surface or shape, physical harmony between gums and teeth, tooth decay, and color changes are treated by the aesthetic dentistry unit. In order to give the patient a more aesthetic smile, applications such as composite or porcelain laminate, porcelain veneers, whitening, gingival adjustments are applied.