What is in Vitro Fertilization?
In vitro fertilization is the placement of the embryo, which is obtained as a result of combining (fertilization) of the egg taken from the woman and the sperm taken from the man, in the laboratory environment. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is an assisted reproductive technique for couples who cannot have children naturally. It is one of the most preferred infertility treatments today.
In the in vitro fertilization method, eggs fertilized in a laboratory environment pass the first developmental stages (embryo) in the laboratory environment and are then placed in the uterus of the expectant mother. The pregnancy that will be obtained after this procedure is not different from natural pregnancy. In the in vitro fertilization method, the fertilization of eggs is done in two ways:
•In the laboratory environment, the sperm are left next to the eggs and are expected to enter the egg on their own (classical in vitro fertilization-IVF) and perform the fertilization process.
•The sperm cell is injected directly into the egg (microinjection) under the microscope with the help of a pipette.
In vitro fertilization specialists determine the most suitable one among both methods according to the characteristics of the couples. The main goal is to get the highest chance of success.
In some cases, vaccination treatment can also be applied before IVF treatment. Vaccination treatment is also preferred before resorting to in vitro fertilization, especially in cases of male infertility and unexplained infertility.
In the vaccination process, the female ovary is stimulated, just as in the IVF treatment. After the eggs are cracked, the healthy sperm cells taken from the male are transferred into the uterus with the help of a cannula and fertilization is expected to occur naturally.
In order for the vaccination treatment to be successful, at least one of the tubes belonging to the woman must be open and there must not be an endometrial pathology (endometriosis) that will reduce the possibility of pregnancy. Of course, apart from these, the results of the sperm analysis of the man should be normal or close to normal.
Which Diseases Does the IVF Unit Treat?
IVF treatment, which is an assisted reproductive technique, aims to help couples who cannot have children due to problems such as unexplained infertility, infection in the mother-to-be and tuberculosis, advanced age, low sperm quality and low number in men and obesity.
What Does the IVF Treatment Process Cover?
In women with regular menstrual periods, a single egg is formed each month. When IVF treatment starts, this number is tried to be increased with the help of externally given hormone drugs. Although each treatment procedure differs, the main purpose is to use hormone treatments that provide egg development and prevent male ovulation. During the period of use of hormone drugs, egg development is monitored and blood tests and ultrasound examinations are performed to make dose adjustments when necessary. In this way, at the end of the following process, the eggs that reach the desired maturity are collected with a cracking needle and fertilized with sperm cells taken from the male under laboratory conditions.
Fertilized eggs are left to develop in the culture medium by controlling the temperature and atmosphere under laboratory conditions for 2 to 6 days. At the end of the determined period, the embryos showing the best development are selected and placed in the uterus. The issue of determining the number of embryos to be transferred is discussed in detail with the couples. Because the number of embryos is a factor that directly affects the chance of pregnancy and the risk of multiple pregnancy.
What is the Age Limit in IVF Treatment?
The IVF treatment process begins with the evaluation of the woman's ovarian reserves. Ovarian reserve can be evaluated by ultrasonography and some hormone tests to be performed on the 3rd day of menstruation. If it is determined that the ovarian reserve is in good condition as a result of these examinations, IVF treatment can be applied until the age of 45.
In IVF treatment, due to some chromosomal effects of advanced age, the embryo needs to be examined in detail. In addition, it is important for women who will start in vitro fertilization treatment at the age of 38 and later to apply to the preimplantation genetic diagnosis method in terms of evaluating the embryo status. For these reasons, it is recommended that women start treatment without waiting for advanced ages.
What is the Probability of Success in IVF Treatment?
The age of the expectant mother and the quality of the embryo are among the factors that directly affect the success rate in IVF. In addition to age-related statistics, the factors that affect the success rate of IVF treatment are as follows::
•High weight (Body Mass Index Value above 30)
•Decreased ovarian reserve
•Sperm retention problem and decrease in number
•Problems found in the uterus and fallopian tubes
•Immune system problems that damage sperm and ovaries
•Presence of conditions such as polyps, adhesions, endometriosis, which prevent attachment in the uterus
•Smoking for men and women
•Stress, balanced nutrition and alcohol use