What is Obesity?

Nutrition begins in the mother's womb and continues until death. Adequate and balanced nutrition is necessary for human growth, development, health, and productivity. Individuals need daily calories, which vary according to age, gender, job, genetic characteristics, and disease status. To maintain a healthy life, the calories consumed and the calories spent must be kept in balance.
If the daily calorie intake exceeds the expended calorie, the unspent calorie is stored as fat and causes obesity. The World Health Organization defines obesity as the excessive accumulation of fat in the body to the extent that it impairs health. As it can be understood, obesity is considered a disease that affects the quality and duration of life negatively, which occurs because the calorie intake is more than the calories consumed. The excess energy is stored as fat in the body (20% or more).

Symptoms of Obesity

Early diagnosis of obesity symptoms is essential in terms of treatment. The same symptoms are seen in people with many obesity diseases. Among these symptoms;

  • Sleeping disorders
  • Excessive sweating
  • Breathing problem
  • An increase in the desire to eat
  • Snore
  • Get tired quickly
  • Swelling in the feet
  • Back pains
  • There is increased fat in the abdomen and waist area.

Causes of Obesity

Excessive and unbalanced nutrition are important factors. In addition, while technological developments have made life easier, they have also significantly limited daily movements. Inadequate physical activity, genetic, environmental, socio-cultural, and psychological factors- many interrelated factors cause obesity.

How is Obesity treated?

Success in the fight against obesity requires disciplined work. In the Medicana Health Group's obesity departments- Nutrition, Diet, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, and Obesity and Metabolism Surgery- the Psychiatry department coordinates to determine the most appropriate treatment method for each patient.

Diet Therapy

The most crucial step in treating obesity is diet and exercise therapy. The daily calorie amount that the person should take, as evaluated by the dietitian, is revealed, and an eating program is prepared. A person can lose weight with a diet, but as many overweight people experience, when they quit the diet and switch to standard eating patterns, they regain the same weight or even more. To avoid gaining weight back, they should create a new diet. She/He must abandon his old habits.

Exercise Therapy

It is the second most crucial remedy for weight loss. A weight loss program that does not include exercise is unthinkable and unlikely to succeed. Exercise alone has been shown to result in moderate weight loss. It has been shown that people who exercise regularly have a high metabolic rate during rest. The energy-consuming effect of exercise continues not only during the movement but also after the end of the exercise. However, more than exercise alone is needed to reach the desired weight in a person who wants to lose excess weight. It is the most effective method for maintaining this order after reaching the desired weight.

Medications Therapy

The medications used must be reliable in terms of health, must be approved by the ministry, have a causal effect, have no significant side effects, and must not cause addiction. Obesity medications can be used in addition to diet and exercise therapy. Since there are many deaths due to unconscious drug use today, it is of great importance that such drugs should be used under the advice and control of a physician.

Obesity in Children

Obesity, which is becoming more and more widespread, has affected children as well as adults. The fact that 16.3% of children aged 2-19 in the world are obese, and this number is increasing day by day, has also become a public health problem. To prevent this ever-increasing data, children must first be under parental control. If the child is heavier than his peers and the body mass index is higher than it should be, a specialist doctor should be consulted. Early treatment in children is essential to prevent future diseases. In this process, parents should support their children in regulating their eating habits and encourage them to engage in physical activity.

Obesity in Turkey

According to the data announced by the Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK) in 2014, The rate of obese individuals in our country is 19.9%. When individuals' body mass index is examined, Of individuals aged 15 and over, 33.7% are overweight, 42.2% are average weight, and 4.2% are underweight. In terms of gender, 24.5% of women are obese, and 29.3% are overweight. In men, these rates are 15.3% and 38.2%, respectively. When these data are put into figures according to the population of Turkey, in our country, There are 40 million "overweight" and 8 million "obese" individuals.

Obesity Calculation Procedures

Many methods have been developed to determine the degree of obesity. Today's most widely used method is the body mass index, which anyone can easily calculate.
How is obesity calculated with BMI, according to the American Institute of Health?
It is obtained by dividing the person's weight (in kg) by the square of their height (in meters).

  • 20 – 24.9 is normal
  • 25 – 29.9 is overweight
  • 30 – 34.9 is obese
  • 35 – 39.5 is type II obese
  • 40 – 49.9 is morbidly obese
  • 50 or more is considered super obese.

How do we fight Obesity?

Obesity is among the diseases with the highest prevalence in the world. Because of obesity-induced hypertension, type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, ischemic heart disease, and similar diseases, the life expectancy of obese patients is approximately 15 years shorter than that of normal individuals. Obesity is also a risk factor for cancer types such as colorectal cancers and breast and prostate cancer. Therefore, the balance between healthy nutrition and obesity should be well maintained. In addition to regulating nutrition and activity habits, the patient's family, in particular, should be informed about this issue. To achieve successful results in obesity, which is a complex process, the person's determination is essential. Getting information about obesity from specialist doctors and keeping it under constant control during this process will affect the treatment positively.

Created at 11.10.2023 06:21
Updated at 27.04.2024 09:27
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