Pediatric Cardiovascular Surgery

What is Pediatric Cardiovascular Surgery?

In our country, more than 3000 babies are born with congenital heart disease every year. More than half of these babies have the chance to lead an everyday life in their later years thanks to the treatment and heart operations.
At least half of the babies born with congenital heart disease each year need heart surgery. Although the cause of genetic heart problems is unknown, it has been accepted that some factors are influential in this regard. For example, congenital heart disease in one of the parents or relatives, unconscious drug use, especially in early pregnancy, kin marriage, infectious diseases (rubella), exposure to x-rays during pregnancy, alcohol use during pregnancy, hormonal disorders of the mother, or diabetes mellitus of the mother are some of these factors.
Apart from these, genetic anomalies such as Turner Syndrome or Down Syndrome may be the cause of heart diseases.
While the majority of childhood heart diseases, for which early diagnosis and treatment are significant, can be diagnosed after birth, with today's medical technological systems, most of them can be analyzed with fetal echocardiography while still in the mother's womb.

Which Diseases Does the Pediatric Cardiovascular Surgery Unit Treat?

Pediatric cardiovascular surgery mainly deals with the diagnosis and treatment of the following diseases:

Cyanotic congenital heart diseases

  • Large vessel transposition
  • Tricuspid atresia
  • Turuncus arteriosus
  • Tetralogy of Fallot

Acinatic (non-cyanotic) congenital heart diseases

  • Atrial septal defect
  • Patent ductus arteriosus
  • Ventricular Septal Defect
  • Aortic Coarctation
  • Eisanmenger syndrome

Acquired heart diseases

  • Congestive heart failure
  • Acute rheumatic fever (ARA)
  • Rheumatic heart valve diseases
  • Infective heart diseases (carditis: endocarditis, myocarditis, pericarditis)
  • Heart rhythm disorders (arrhythmias)

Diagnostic Methods in Pediatric Heart Diseases

A correct diagnosis should be made first to follow the appropriate treatment process in infants and children. For this, the child's family history is first found, a physical examination is performed, and some tests are applied when the specialist doctor deems it necessary. Some commonly used tests are:

Heart electrocardiography: The heart's electrical activity can be seen with the help of electrodes attached to the body. Many diseases, such as rhythm and conduction problems and thickening of the heart wall, can be diagnosed.
Cardiac catheterization and angiography: This test checks whether the heart is pumping correctly. It can also monitor pressure in different areas of the heart, anatomical problems, and heart size and position.
Telecardiography: The method used to display the size, appearance, and enlargement of the heart in the cavities.
Holter ECG: Electrodes attached to the chest are monitored for 24 hours. This method monitors heart conditions, rhythm disorders, sudden shortness of breath, and fainting.
Echocardiography: With this method, also known as ECHO, the dimensions of the heart chambers, heart valves, intra-cardiac pressure, heart wall movements, and the amount of blood expelled during a single contraction can be followed.
Electrophysiology: It is used for palpitations, fainting, or rhythm disorders that other methods cannot detect. Thin sheaths are placed on the neck and inguinal region vessels, and electrode catheters are delivered to the heart. The signals received directly from the heart evaluate whether the conduction functions are healthy and normal.
Color Doppler Echocardiography: This is the colored observation of the heart in 2 or 3 dimensions with the help of ultrasonic sound waves. It can measure the condition of the heart muscles, the blood flow rate of the heart, structural heart anomalies, and the pressure in the heart's cavities. This method also assesses a baby's heart condition in the womb. Images are obtained with a device called a transducer placed on the chest.
Stress Test: It is applied by sticking electrodes on the skin in the chest area. Congenital heart diseases, heart capacity measurement, symptoms that develop as a result of activity, and the stressed state of the heart can be observed with this test.

Operations Performed in the Pediatric Cardiovascular Unit

  • Arterial Switch Surgery (TGA)
  • Norwood Surgery
  • Ross Procedure:
  • Neonatal Complete Correction Surgery
  • Fontan Procedure
  • Valve Repairs
  • Atrial Septal Defect Repairs

Created at 11.10.2023 06:55
Updated at 23.05.2024 10:46
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