Pediatric Nephrology

What is Child Nephrology?

Medical treatments can protect and improve the functioning of the kidneys, which are the essential elements of the urinary system, that become less functional due to any acute or chronic reason without the need for surgical intervention. Pediatric nephrology is the specialty that diagnoses and treats to restore the body's acid-base and electrolyte balance, along with dysfunction caused by impaired kidney and urinary system disorders.

Which Diseases Does the Pediatric Nephrology Unit Treat?

The "Pediatric Nephrology" unit is responsible for diagnosing and treating congenital or acquired kidney and urinary tract diseases in children. The kidneys and urinary tract (urinary system) have many functions that maintain an individual's health. These functions include disposing of metabolic waste, providing the body's water-electrolyte (sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium) and acid-base balance, and synthesizing active vitamin D (bone metabolism) and erythropoietin (stimulating hormone for blood production) hormones.

It also plays a significant role in regulating blood pressure. Congenital or acquired kidney and urinary tract diseases result in the decrease, deterioration, and loss of these functions. This causes deterioration of healthy life, loss of functions, and development of complaints. In addition, since the functional reserves of the kidneys are more than necessary to maintain the body's health, the reflection of this dysfunction as a complaint is delayed in case of a disease. In short, the symptoms of kidney diseases have a very insidious course, but when the loss of function is evident, noticeable complaints arise.

For this reason, it is necessary to know the causes/complaints that cause kidney function loss very well; diagnosis and treatment should be provided before kidney function loss and complaints develop. Some kidney function losses (depending on the factor, severity, and duration of the factor) may not be reversible. This healthy balance can be achieved with a timely and appropriate treatment approach.

Kidney failure problems are encountered in case of deterioration in these essential functions of the kidneys in children for any reason. This can take two forms: acute or chronic kidney failure. Causes of acute kidney failure include;

• Diarrhea
• Vomiting
• Dehydration of the body in cases such as extreme burns
• Congenital Causes
• Genetic factors
• Cysts
• Urethra problems
• There are reasons for this, such as kidney damage caused by urinary tract infections.

Chronic renal failure (CRF) can be defined as irreversible loss of kidney function characterized by decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Because the kidney has a large reserve of function, more than half of the kidney's functional capacity (more than 50% of the nephrons) must be lost to develop CRF. On average, 0.6-1.6/million new pediatric patients experience end-stage renal disease (ESRD) each year. Although it varies according to country, an average of 4-6/million children under the age of 15 need support (renal replacement) treatment every year.

Studies have shown by studies that 40% of patients with end-stage renal failure who require dialysis or kidney transplantation are associated with causes that can be treated or whose failure development can be delayed with early diagnosis and an appropriate treatment approach. For this reason, early diagnosis is essential in these patients, as in other diseases.

Kidney failure is divided into five stages according to how well the kidneys can perform their functions. These staging grades are significant in determining treatment methods. The pediatric nephrology unit follows all these procedures, of which treatment planning is of vital importance.

Treatment options within the scope of the pediatric nephrology unit include hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, hemofiltration, organ transplantation, and drug therapy. The unit performs diagnostic evaluation and treatment for kidney diseases.

  • Hypertension
  • Glomerular Diseases
  • Approach to Renal Tubulopathies
  • Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders and Treatment
  • Acid-Base Balance And Disorders
  • Thrombotic Microangiopathies
  • Vasculitides Involving Kidney Diseases
  • Urinary System Stone Disease and Nephrocalcinosis
  • Urinary Tract Infections and Structural Kidney Anomalies
  • Cystic Kidney Diseases
  • Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Follow-up
  • Kidney Replacement (Support) Treatments
  • Kidney transplantation

Created at 11.10.2023 06:55
Updated at 23.05.2024 11:52
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