What is Child Nephrology?
It is possible to protect and improve the functioning of the kidneys, which are the most important elements of the urinary system, that become less functional due to any acute or chronic reason, without the need for surgical intervention, with the application of medical treatments. Pediatric nephrology is the specialty that diagnoses and treats to restore the body's acid-base and electrolyte balance, along with dysfunction caused by impaired kidney and urinary system disorders.
Which Diseases Does the Pediatric Nephrology Unit Treat?
The "Pediatric Nephrology" unit is responsible for the diagnosis and treatment of congenital or acquired kidney and urinary tract diseases in children. Kidneys and urinary tract (urinary system) have many functions in order to maintain the health of the individual. These functions are briefly: disposing of metabolic waste, providing the body's water-electrolyte (sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium) and acid-base balance, also synthesizing active vitamin D (bone metabolism) and erythropoietin (stimulating hormone for blood production) hormones. It also plays a major role in regulating blood pressure. Congenital or acquired diseases of kidney and urinary tract are situations such as decrease, deterioration and loss of these functions. This causes deterioration of healthy life, loss of functions and development of complaints. In addition, since the functional reserves of the kidneys are more than necessary to maintain the body's health, the reflection of this dysfunction as a complaint is delayed in case of a disease. In short, the symptoms of kidney diseases have a very insidious course, but when the loss of function is evident, noticeable complaints arise. For this reason, it is necessary to know very well the causes/complaints that cause the development of kidney function loss; diagnosis and treatment should be provided before kidney function loss and complaints develop. Because some of the kidney function losses (depending on the factor, severity and duration of the factor) may not be reversible. This healthy balance can be achieved with a timely and appropriate treatment approach.
Kidney failure problems are encountered in case of deterioration in these essential functions of the kidneys in children for any reason. This can take two forms, acute or chronic kidney failure. Causes of acute kidney failure include;
•Dehydration of the body in cases such as extreme burns
•There are reasons such as kidney damage caused by urinary tract infection.
Chronic renal failure (CRF) can be defined as irreversible loss of kidney function characterized by decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Because the kidney has a large reserve of function, more than half of the kidney's functional capacity (more than 50% of the nephrons) must be lost for the development of CRF. On average, 0.6-1.6/million new pediatric patients experience end-stage renal disease (ESRD) each year. Although it varies according to countries, an average of 4-6/million children under the age of 15 need support (renal replacement) treatment every year.
It has been shown by studies that 40% of patients with end-stage renal failure who require dialysis or kidney transplantation are associated with causes that can be treated or whose failure development can be delayed with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment approach. For this reason, early diagnosis is of great importance in these patients, as in other diseases.
Kidney failure is divided into five stages according to the extent to which the kidney can perform its function. These staging grades are very important in determining treatment methods. All these procedures, of which treatment planning is of vital importance, are followed and carried out by the pediatric nephrology unit.
Treatment options within the scope of the pediatric nephrology unit include hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, hemofiltration and organ transplantation as well as drug therapy. Diagnostic evaluation and treatment is performed for kidney diseases.
•Approach to Renal Tubulopathies
•Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders and Treatment
•Acid-Base Balance And Disorders
•Vasculitides Involving Kidney Diseases
•Urinary System Stone Disease and Nephrocalcinosis
•Urinary Tract Infections and Structural Kidney Anomalies
•Cystic Kidney Diseases
•Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Follow-up
•Kidney Replacement (Support) Treatments