MEDICAL SECOND OPINION
Cardiovascular Surgery

What is Cardiovascular Surgery?

The 'heart' is our organ, whose main task is to pump blood, which moves oxygen-rich blood and nutrients to our body through the circulatory system. With its strong muscle structure, it is a non-stop pump that contracts 60-80 times per minute and pumps approximately 4-6 liters of blood to the organs. The most important system it works with is the 'vascular system'. It collects the blood from our body with the venous system, sends it to the lungs for oxygenation, and pumps the oxygen-rich blood back to our body through the arteries. The Department of Cardiovascular Surgery is the medical unit that carries out the treatment of diseases (congenital or acquired) related to the heart and the vascular system it works with, with drugs or surgery.

Cardiovascular diseases are among the serious causes of death both in our country and in the world. Thanks to the continuous progress of modern medicine, many diseases are under control with early diagnosis. In cardiovascular diseases that require surgical treatment, the treatment of our patients is carried out by specialist doctors.

What Diseases Does Cardiovascular Surgery Treat?

Cardiovascular Surgery carries out the treatment of diseases related to the heart and the vascular system it works with.

•Coronary bypass surgery / By-pass surgery on the working heart

•Heart valve surgeries (replacement or repair of valves)

•Minimally invasive heart surgery

•Aortic aneurysm surgeries (Classic and Endovascular (Closed) method)

•Heart tumors

•Surgical and Endovascular (stent, balloon) treatment of peripheral arterial diseases

•Treatment of acute and chronic arterial diseases (Embolectomy, thrombectomy)

•Carotid Artery (Carotid artery) Diseases and treatment

•Varicose veins treatment (Endovenous Laser and Radiofrequency Ablation, Sclerotherapy / Foam Sclerotherapy)

•Deep Vein Thrombosis Treatment

•Cardiac membrane (Pericardium) diseases

•Treatment of vasospastic vascular diseases, Buerger's disease, some inflammatory vascular diseases, cardiovascular injuries

Surgery in the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery

Coronary By-Pass Surgery: The arteries that feed the heart are called "coronary arteries". The stenosis and occlusion of these vessels cause a heart attack (myocardial infarction). The disease that develops in people with high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, obesity, stress, inactivity and a family history of coronary artery disease impairs the quality of life. Coronary bypass is performed with open heart surgery for critical stenosis or completely occluded coronary vessels. In bypass surgery, blood flow is restored by creating a bridge beyond the coronary vessels that have developed stenosis or completely occluded with vessels taken from another part of the body.

Heart Valve Surgery: Heart valves are structures located between the chambers of the heart, which open towards the direction of blood flow and then return to their original position, preventing the blood from escaping backwards. Surgery is required due to severe insufficiency or severe narrowing of the heart valves (rheumatic disease). Depending on the disease (insufficiency or narrowing) in the ducts, the valves are replaced or repaired by open heart surgery.

Surgical Interventions for Heart Tumors: Benign/malignant mass structures that spread from organs other than the heart or originate from the heart are called cardiac tumors. Generally, benign tumors are called myxoma, and malignant tumors are called angiosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. Surgical interventions for the removal of tumors are also performed through tiny incisions under the breast called minimally invasive, apart from the classical method.

Peripheral Vascular Surgery: Apart from the heart and brain, the arteries that feed the other organs and tissues in the body are called peripheral arteries. Diseases caused by stenosis and occlusion in these vessels are treated with surgical methods called peripheral bypass or endarterectomy. In peripheral bypass surgeries, a vein or an artificial vein from another part of the body is used. In patients with severe atherosclerosis that cannot be bypassed, sometimes the hardened, chalky plaque inside the vessel is peeled off from the vessel wall and the vessel is cleaned. This procedure is known as 'endarterectomy'. After cleaning the inside of the vein, the area opened is closed by patching the patient's own vein or an artificial vein. In peripheral vascular diseases, there are treatment options by using closed and endovascular methods other than open surgery.

Minimally Invasive CVS: Minimally invasive cardiovascular surgery is a surgical method that uses small incisions in operations and provides rapid recovery. In such operations, the risk of trauma, blood loss, post-operative pain and infection is less. Its advantages are that the recovery time is faster and it provides a better cosmetic appearance.

Vein Removal for By-Pass with Small Incisions: The veins to be used in by-pass surgeries are taken from other parts of the body, such as the leg or arm of the patient. In the classical method, veins are taken with large incisions, while veins are removed with the help of small incisions with the endoscopic method.

Left Ventricular Aneurysm Repairs: The balloon-shaped enlargement of any part of the heart muscle in the left ventricle (ventricle) region of the heart after a heart attack is called a left ventricular aneurysm. The cap muscle in the enlarged aneurysm area cannot contract and cannot contribute to the blood pumping process. A clot may develop inside the aneurysm, causing rhythm disturbances and heart failure. Paralysis can also develop as a result of the clot thrown into the brain. Aneurysm can be corrected using different techniques, depending on the region and size of it.

Aortic Aneurysm Surgery: The main artery that comes out of the heart and distributes clean blood to the body is called the 'Aorta'. After the aorta leaves the heart, it is called by different names throughout its course. The part after it exits the heart is called the ascending (ascending) aorta, the area where it curves afterwards is called the arcus aorta, the part inside the chest cavity is called the descending (descendant) aorta and the part inside the abdomen is called the abdominal aorta. Abnormal enlargements in the form of sacs may occur in these areas of the aorta. These conditions, called aneurysms, should be followed closely, and patients with enlargement or rupture should be treated surgically.

Coronary Angiography: It is the process of imaging the coronary vessels feeding the heart by giving contrast material. The procedure is performed by entering with special catheters through the arteries in the groin or wrist.

CGM Test: The CGM test, also known as cardiogoniometry, is a computer-based test that provides three-dimensional visualization of the electrical activity of the vessels leading to the heart. This method, also known as 3D-ECG, can be performed in a short time with the help of electrodes attached to the back and chest while the patient is at rest. No chemicals or radiation are used during the application. The CGM test is known as a test that shows the risk of heart attack much faster than the classical method.

ABI Test: Known as Ankle-Brachial Index and translated into Turkish as "Ankle-arm index", the test is used in the diagnosis of peripheral artery disease. In people with peripheral artery disease, narrowing of the arteries supplying the arms or legs and related circulatory disorders are seen. The ABI test is a measurement method calculated by evaluating the blood pressure obtained by attaching a blood pressure cuff to the legs and arms.


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