What is Plastic Surgery?
Although aesthetic surgeries constitute the majority of plastic surgery; reconstructive surgery, hand surgery, craniofacial surgery, microsurgery and burn treatments are also included in the field of plastic surgery.
Reconstructive surgery includes the repair of all acquired or congenital tissue and organ loss affecting the skin, subcutaneous tissue and bones in the body. For example, vascular masses such as attached fingers (syndactyly), traumatic burns, different incisions and limb ruptures, chronic wounds, and hemangiomas are within this surgical discipline.
Aesthetic/cosmetic surgery on the other hand, covers surgeries and attempts to further beautify the bodily appearance and bring it to perfection. The main purpose here is beauty and aesthetic concerns rather than a medical problem.
And plastic surgery is an extensive discipline that covers all these areas. During the plastic surgery specialization training, aesthetic (cosmetic) surgery training is given, as well. Aesthetic concerns can sometimes present diseases accompanied by medical problems other than just for beauty purposes. For example, both medical and aesthetic problems such as surgical correction of giant breasts (gigantomastia) or restructuring of the excessive fat in the body can be solved together. Accordingly, it is very important to preserve the function of an organ as well as aesthetically correcting it. For example, during rhinoplasty (aesthetic nose surgery), breathing problems should be corrected while shaping the nose.
Plastic Surgery, due to its nature, deals with pathological disorders such as tissue disorders in the general body, surgical scars after surgical operations, sagging due to trauma, and can also perform aesthetic interventions in line with the demands of the patient.
What Diseases Does Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Treat?
•Congenital or acquired deformities (cleft lip, cleft palate, congenitally attached fingers)
•Open wounds after trauma and illness
•Post-traumatic facial fractures and their surgical treatment
•Skin cancers and surgical treatment
•Post-traumatic functional disorders of the hand and hand surgery
•Microsurgery (Tissue transplants, nerve and vascular repairs)
•Surgical treatment of skin tumors (moles)
•Burns and scars that cause functional and aesthetic deformities
Surgical interventions frequently performed in the Plastic Surgery unit are as follows:
Scar treatment:Generally in every healthy person, wounds heal by leaving scars. Surgical interventions are also an injury to the tissues and it is normal to form scars. Similarly, burns are also considered as one of the important causes of scars. Therefore, many methods offered by advanced technology for patients who are disturbed by scars can be applied by specialist doctors.
Treatment of non-healing wounds:Non-healing wounds are seen due to reasons such as vascular occlusion, being bed-ridden or diabetes. One of the most important procedures of plastic surgery is wound care. In this regard, prevention of wound formation, care of wounds with advanced techniques, follow-up and monitoring of the process and the stages leading to surgery if necessary are evaluated as a whole.
Skin cancers:Today, skin cancer cases have increased considerably due to reasons such as too much exposure to the sun and depletion of the ozone layer. There are many different types of skin cancers. While removal of a 3-4 mm skin area is sufficient for the treatment of some types, others are quite aggressive and dangerous and larger areas need to be removed. The main issue that individuals should pay attention to in this regard is to monitor their body and follow moles. Especially if there is a mole that grows rapidly, changes color and form, itches or has a wound, it is necessary to apply to the plastic surgery unit immediately. With a small local operation, the mole can be removed and a pathological examination can be performed. In this way, treatment planning can be done more accurately.
Fractures in facial bones:As a result of various traumas or accidents, nose, cheekbone or jawbone fractures may occur in the face area. During the surgical repair of these fractures, titanium plates and screws are used. Repair of facial bones is important not only from an aesthetic point of view but also from a functional point of view.
Head and neck area repairs:Some or all of the parts such as nose, ears and lips can be lost due to cancer, burns or accidents. In such cases, results that look very close to the original ones can be obtained with some surgical techniques.
Deformities in genital organs:Some congenital genital organ disorders can also be corrected by plastic surgery. "Hypospadias" is known as the "prophet's circumcision" and it is a frequently seen condition which is defined as the urinary opening in male babies being located in the back and not on the tip of the penis. On the other hand, female babies may not have a vagina for different reasons. In such and similar cases, plastic surgery recommends the most appropriate treatment method.
Microsurgical interventions:Microsurgery is used to move tissues from one area of the body, together with the vessels and nerves, to another area where they are needed. For example, a chin can be made from the tibia for a person whose jaw is completely removed, or an esophagus can be made from the intestine for an individual whose esophagus is removed. With this technique, damaged vessels and nerves are repaired.
Breast reconstruction:Today, part or all of the breasts of many women treated for breast cancer can be removed. With the approval of the oncologist, help from plastic surgery can be taken to reconstruct the breast. Breast reconstruction surgery can be performed at the same time as oncological surgery, or it can be performed after all treatments are completed. The patient's own tissues or breast prostheses are used for treatment.